About the Cenotes


The word “Cenote”, comes from the mayan “D’zonot” and means “well”.

Cenotes are natural pits, or sinkholes, resulting from the collapse of limestone bedrock therefore exposing the ground water underneath. Cenotes are common geological forms in low latitude regions, particularly on islands, coastlines, and platforms with young limestones with little soil development. They spread all over the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. The term “cenote” also describes similar karst features in other countries such as Cuba and Australia, in addition to the word “sinkholes”.

Diving into the cenotes is like diving into the history of the peninsula of Yucatan and much more. It gives a wonderful chance to appreciate the evidence of geological changes, archeological discoveries, extinguished species fossils…

The best way to discover the Cenotes will be by cavern diving or cave diving, getting cave diving training.



Cenotes are the connections to the subterranean water bodies. They can feature large open water pools or small sheltered pools. Sometimes they do not have any exposed water. There are over 6000 different cenotes in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.

Cenote waters are usually crystal clear, as the water comes from rain water filtering slowly through the limestone. Therefore contains very few particules. For cave divers great pleasure, cenotes sometimes reveal an underlying cave system.

The Yucatan Peninsula is now officially host of the longest cave system in the world, s system Sac Actun with 347 km. Thanks to  many years of hard work and many hours of exploration, active explorers recently connected  Sac actun (264 km) and Dos Ojos (83km) underwater (January 2018).

Cenotes around the world attract cavern and cave divers.

The Yucatán peninsula

CenotesFormed during the Cenozonic era, – 65,000,000 years ago, the peninsula of Yucatan is very young. The entire peninsula was once a reef, but as the water level dropped, the flatland of Yucatan emmerged.

The peninsula is the exposed portion of the larger Yucatán Platform composed mostly of limestone . The whole of the Yucatán Peninsula is an unconfined flat lying karst landscape.

65 million years ago a meteorite impacted in the greater Caribbean Basin. The center of Chicxulub crater is deeply buried  off the north coast of the peninsula near the town of Chicxulub. The famous “Ring of Cenotes”  outlines one of the shock-waves from this impact, which lies more than 1 km below the modern ground surface.

Although cenotes spread widely throughout much of the Yucatán Peninsula, a higher-density circular alignment of cenotes overlies the ridge of the Chicxulub Crater. This crater structure, identified from the alignment of cenotes, along with geophysical methods.


Cenotes - Karst of MexicoLimestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of the mineral calcite. It mostly forms in clear, warm, shallow marine waters. It is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal and fecal debris. It can also be a chemical sedimentary rock formed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate from lake or ocean water.

Dissolution of the limestone, formation of the caves

For the Chemists this is how it goes:

Cenotes Limestone dissolution – Chemical reactions leading to cave formation

Gunn J. (Ed.) 2003. Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science. Routledge. New York

Calcium precipitation in the Cenotes forms a white layer at the surface

Flora and fauna

Flora and fauna are generally more limitted than in the open ocean, however marine animals do prosper in caves. In caverns, one can spot mollis, guppies, cat-fish, small eels and turttles. In the darkest cenotes, the fauna has evolved special features to live in an the absence natural light. For example, most cave fauna doesn’t have pigmentation and is often blind. They are equipped with sensors in order to find food and make their way around in the dark.

Remipede (Speleonectes tulumensis)

Remipedes are primitive centipede-like crustacean. They can grow up to an inch (2.5 cm) and they use venomous fangs to capture their prey. No other crustacean has this characteristic.

Isopod (Metacirolana mayana)

These cave scavengers feed on whatever comes accross their claws (usually smaller crustaceans).

Mexican Blind Fish (Typhliasina pearsei)

A fish species that inhabits the brackish and freshwater layers of the Yucatan’s caves. The albino, sightless fish grows a couple inches (5 cm). And unlike most other fish, it gives birth to live young.